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如何理解明确表达的事实和细节

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在阅读理解题中,大多数问题是测试应试者对明确表达的事实和细节情况的理解。在做此类试题时,我们应从英语文章内容的一般组织方法上去考虑。一般说来,为了阐明文章的中心意思,作者总是运用大量的事实和细节来说明中心意思并进行各种不同的陈述,也就是说文章中的每一句话都是围绕主题而展开的,或是提供例证,或是进行分类比较,或是说明因果关系等。正确分析文章中的每个句子是如何说明和解析中心意思,是提高阅读理解水平的关键。分析事实和细节内容的有效方法是:在阅读过程中首先找出主题句(文章的中心意思往往通过主题句表现出来),然后分析其他各个句子与主题句的意义关系,即形成一个分析文章意义的流程图。这样我们可以清楚地掌握文章中的细节内容,找出所需选择的问题的答案。下面本文举一个例子来说明:

during the american war of independence,women were involved in the active fighting in three ways.first,as members of a distinct branch of the continental army,referred to as“women of the army”, women staffed field hospitals and acted as a military support in such roles as water carriers.in an emergency,women water carriers,who had plenty of opportunities to observe the firing of cannons,could replace a wounded comrade.the second way that women were involved in the active fighting was as regular troop members who were in men's uniforms and fought side by side with their male counterparts.theoretically,women were not supposed to be recruited into the army,but if a woman was a good soldier,no one made an issue of sex at a time when the army was so short of soldiers that boys not yet in their teens were also being recruited in violation of rules.third,women were occasional fighters with local militia companies or committees of safety formed to protect the local community.

1.what is the main idea expressed in this passage?

a.women played an important role in military hospitals during the war.
b.the continental army was successful in teaching women to fire cannons.
c.the service of women in combat during the war.
d.wom en were active in com bat during the american war of independence.

2.women sometimes fired cannons because _______ .
a.they had observed the procedure and could therefore substitute for disabled men
b.local militia companies had trained them very carefully for emergency fighting
c.they had a better safety record than men for using weapons
d.it was against the law for young boys to fire weapons

3.what is probably the m ain reason that women were perm itted to fight in the war even though their formal participation was discouraged?

a.only women were successful as water carriers.
b.they were needed to make battle uniforms.
c.colonial women were particularly healthy and strong.
d.the army desperately needed combat soldiers.

4.women were involved in fighting the war for american independence in all of the following ways except as _______ .

a.members of committees of safety
b.support personnel at medical facilities
c.recruiters of soldiers for the continental army
d.combat troops in the regular army

本文的中心意思是:在美国独立战争中,妇女是如何积极参战的。文章中的每一句话都是围绕这一中心意思展开的。其展开方式可以通过下面的意义流程图加以分析:

根据以上意义流程图分析,应该很容易得出问题1—4的答案分别为d,a,d,c。第1题问的是文章的中心意思,其余几题都问的是事实和细节内容,但后面几题的答案与第1题是密切相关的。

在做阅读理解题时,找出文章的中心意思,理解每句话与中心意思的关系,确定题目的测试类型,对照题目和文章中的相关内容仔细阅读判别是理解文章中明确表达的事实和细节的重要方法。

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