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备考六级阅读之突破词汇关

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六级阅读中的词汇题要求考生确定某一特定的词或短语在上下文中的准确词义。常考的词语包括生僻词和指代词。本题常以下面方式提问:

in paragraph 1,“...”means /refers to /is closest in meaning to /implies...
the word“...”could best be replaced by which of the following?
from the last sentence of the first paragraph we learn that...

词汇是语言的建筑材料。提高阅读能力必须扩大词汇量。大纲规定,考试的总词汇量为5,300个左右,并且在阅读理解试题中有不超过3%的生词量。一般来说,考生如果能够掌握6,000个词汇,就为在阅读理解部分取得较高的分数奠定了坚实的基穿?平时听到和读到生词时,应该注意积累,要学会在上下文中记忆单词,这样做既容易记牢又可以学到单词的搭配和用法。

1.怎样记单词?
1)记同义词、近义词、反义词
e.g.bear,brook,endure,stand,tolerate,put up with,live with...(忍受)

2)记派生词
e.g.competition(n.竞争)=>compete(v.竞争)=>competitor(n.竞争者)=>competitive(a.竞争的)=>competent(a.有能力的)=>competence(n.能力)

3)根据词根、词缀记忆单词

英语中的大部分词汇都是有根可寻的,而且前后词缀也都有固定的功能和含义。

人们最常观看的television一词就大有说道。前缀 tele-表示“远距离地;通过无线电进行传播的”,词根vis表示see(看),后缀-ion用来构成名词。通过词根、词缀的用法,可以轻松地记住或猜出以下单词的含义:

visible(可看见的),invisible(看不见的),visit(参观),visitor(参观者),revisit(再参观),revise(修改), revision(修改),previse(预见),prevision(预见),su- pervise(监督),supervision(监督),supervisor(监督者), supervisory(监督的),visual(视觉的),vision(远见)等。

2.注意一词多义的问题

正确掌握词义及一词多义的现象有助于提高阅读理解。如下所示:figure一词在不同的语境中就有不同的意思。
e.g.(1)she earns a five-figure salary.她的工资是五位数的。(数字)

(2)isaw a figure on the beach.我在海边看到一个人影。(影子)
(3)she has a fine figure.她身材不错。(体形)
(4)he was a political figure.他是个政治人物。(人物)
(5)i cannot figure out why she said so.我无法理解她为什么这么说。(figure out理解)

3.猜词技能与方法

猜词是一种阅读技巧。许多英语水平测试都把猜词能力作为一项阅读技巧列入考试大纲。猜词不是胡猜、乱猜,而是结合一定的上下文,根据文中的线索来进行猜词悟义。

常用的猜词方法有:定义法、对比法、因果法、同义法等。

(1)定义法
在使用较为生僻的词时,作者往往会在上下文中通过破折号、括号或逗号等直接给出该词的定义,或者用定语从句来解释。

a catalyst is a substance,which accelerates a chemical reaction.(催化剂)
sometimes the earth moves between the sun and the moon.then the earth's shadow falls on the moon; no light from the sun can then reach the moon.the moon gets dark because it cannot reflect the sun's light.we call this an eclipse of the moon.(月蚀)

(2)对比法
通过上下文词义的对比来猜测生词的含义。

if you agree,write“yes”;if you dissent,write“no”.(反对)
although a large number of people think the man to be guilty,i believe him to be innocent of the crime.(无辜的,清白的,与句中“guilty”有罪的相对)

(3)因果法

根据因果推理判断词义。
jane did not hear what they were talking about because she was completely engrossed in her reading.(全神贯注)

(4)同义法

上下文在解释一个生僻词时,往往会出现一些标志性的词语,如:or,and,that is,that is to say,i.e., namely,in other words等等。

they surrendered,that is,threw out their weapons and walked out with their hands above their heads.(投降)

1997年1月的六级考试中第三篇阅读文章中第四段第一句话如下:

in the workplace,men have long had well-defined precedents and role models for achieving success.

问题:
the word“precedents”probably refers to_______.

a.early acts for men to follow as examples
b.particular places for men to occupy especially because of their importance
c.things that men should agree upon
d.men's beliefs that everything in the world has already been decided

根据同义法,可以看出这里precedents(先例)一词与句中role models意思相近,答案为a。

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